conducting clinical trials of a new drug, the goal is to get a clear
understanding of the effectiveness and potential hazards of the new drug
before marketing and selling it. By varying the doses given to the
clinical trial participants, companies can determine the safety and
effectiveness of different amounts of the drug. They can evaluate how
much of the drug is necessary to be effective, the side effects that may
occur with different dosages, and whether the intensity of side effects
changes at different dosages. Companies can also compare the
effectiveness and side effects of their drugs against other similar
drugs used to treat the same disease.
Answer: Technically it is a rapid test method- since it is based on the measurement of an endpoint that typically occurs earlier than the endpoint of a classical micro method, which of course is the visual detection of growth - seen either as turbidty or colonies by the human eye. It does however have some ties to classical methods- it still is growth based.
Answer: in drugs, there are things like nikotine that are VERY addicting, so watch out. many people think drugs can make them happy or make them high, or cool, but that is wrong. if you are thinking about doing drugs, dont. there are much better things in life to make you happy. try sports, art, and try to find your talents, and indulge them.dude your a dumt drugs do get you high but their still bad and also little kids need to stop answering these things its cal nicotine and its only in tobacco dumb idoit so get some research before you look it
Answer: SAP is Substance Abuse Panel. This is a 10-panel test, testing at the 50ng/mL cutoff for THC (hence the 10-50). This is pretty typical of a pre-employment drug test that, I believe, and also includes alcohol testing. The following drugs are tested in this 10-panel test: AMPHETAMINES BARBITURATES BENZODIAZEPINES COCAINE METABOLITES MARIJUANA METABOLITES METHADONE METHAQUALONE OPIATES PHENCYCLIDINE PROPOXYPHENE The alcohol typically tested for is ethyl. Note the METABOLITES in some of the substances. This means that you do not have to be under the influence at the time, as the metabolites are stored in the body days or sometimes weeks after use. Hope this helps.
Answer: Animals on which drugs are tested are typically euthanized following completion of the study. This is done because the animals are a biased pool for future studies (i.e they have already received one treatment which is not typical of the population) and are therefore not useful for other studies. Additionally, there are two primary responses which a study would explore: acute and chronic. The vast majority of testing is acute toxicity testing because chronic toxicity requires a much longer time period and is often less applicable to humans than acute. Acute studies involve applying very large doses to determine the lowest observed adverse effect level, lowest lethal dose (the dose at which the first animal dies), the LD50 (the dose at which 50% of the population dies), and the absolute lethal dose (the dose at which every administered creature dies). In that regard, the studies primarily focus on how much it takes to kill an animal, and the survivors are later euthanized.
Answer: Various regulatory agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration in the United States, require that substances be tested on animals before they can be used on humans. There are various reasons. First and foremost, the drug must be tested to ensure that it is safe to use at the dose at which it will be administered. Enough of any substance can be deadly, but some are far more deadly than others. Sodium cyanide, for instance, can kill a person with a relatively-low dose. If a drug is not tested on lab animals beforehand, it could easily kill the person being administered the drug. Testing on lab animals, while not perfect, gives a rough estimate of the amount of a substance which is required to kill a creature. Additionally, these animals may be screened for chronic ailments arising from treatment with the drug. This will ensure that the drug is safe for use by humans.
Additionally, the drug will often be screened for effectiveness in these trials. A drug which does not produce a positive response at a safe dosage will often be abandoned. The FDA will not permit the human testing of a drug at unsafe dosages (i.e. levels near or above the lowest lethal dose). Because human side-effects are often unforeseen and can be life-threatening or even lethal, these tests must be carried out on lab animals. The alternative, killing thousands of humans in failed clinical trials, is essentially out of the question for the industry. Thus, the lesser of two evils prevails.