Production planning is simply a group of processes that start in market and ends in market in a cycle manner.
MARKET Planning for future in most manufacturing cases depends on past history (MARKET). First step of planning is to forecast the demand for future. If the demand for future is known, every thing in the factory can be adjusted to reach the demand. Demand forecasting is the (MARKET) state in the last recent period represented by data, then the data is plotted and appropriate forecasting method is applied according to it.
SOME FORECASTING METHODS:FORECASTING METHODPAST DATA SHAPEMOVING AVERAGE ORSTATIONARYEXPONENTIAL SMOOTHINGDOUBLE EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHINGTRENDSEASONAL FACTORSSEASONAL PLAN After demand forecasting, the objective ( plan aim ) is to meet that demand with minimum costs ( holding, order and penalty).
Definition of costs:DEFINITIONCOSTCOST OF HAVING EXTRA RAW MATERIALS OR PRODUCTSHOLDING COSTCOST OF MAKING AN ORDERORDER COSTCOST OF HAVING LESS RAW MATERIALS OR PRODUCTS THAN THE NEEDEDPENALTY COST To get the minimum costs, EOQ and EPQ have to be founded.
EPQEOQTHE OPTIMAL QUANTITY OF PRODUCTIONS TO GET MINIMUM COSTSTHE OPTIMAL QUANTITY OF RAW MATERIAL TO GET MINIMUM COSTS INVENTORIES Factories usually have three types of inventories: raw material, work in process and fish product inventory. The optimal plan has to be applied to all inventories. RAW MATERIAL INVENTORY According to the conditions of raw material inventory, appropriate EOQ model is applied, and the same thing for finish product inventory. For work in process inventory aggregate planning can find the optimal plan.
SOME EOQ MODELS:VARIABLES DEFINITIONMODELCONDITIONSK:fixed order cost : demand rate / time unit h: holding cost/ unitEOQ =GENERAL MODEL:average total cost : area taken by raw material : EOQ W: total inventory areaNONLINEAR MODEL: min s.t.
MUTIPLE RAW MATERIALS AND LIMTD AREADi: demand in period i Ii: inventory carried during period i Qi: order size in period i Ki : order setup cost h: holding cost/ unit M: big number 10* max demandLINEAR MODEL: Min s.t.
FIXED ORDER COST IS GREATER THAN INVENTORY HOLDING COST + LARGE INVENTORY AREAdiscount model ( PROCESS )OFFER ON RAW MATERIAL WORK IN PROCESS INVENTORY Applying aggregate planning model, gives the optimal solution for this inventory. Min s.t.
Where : cost of hiring one worker : cost of lay off : cost of holding one unit for one period
: cost of production one unit on overtime : Idle cost per unit
: number of production day per t K: number of aggregate unit produced by one worker in one day : Initial inventory at the start of T : Initial number of worker : forecasted demand FINISH PRODUCT INVENTORY The general model: EPQ = Where: K:fixed order cost : demand rate / time unit h: holding cost/ unit p: production rate/unit
MARKET After taking data form market, optimal plan (MINIMUM COSTS) for inventories is made and applied, the products are taken to the market. That is simply what does production planning mean.
Answer: This question is just silly! Planning is a good way to jot down your ideas. Sometimes, you might make a mistake and you will have to start again, but if you plan anything, you can go back to it and copy it out on to a different sheet of paper...Really silly question, and that is coming from a 10 year old...(me)
Answer: For any organization, strat planning is an organized effort to predict the future environment of the organization, and begin preparing now to succeed and survive in that future. Broad, long-term plans are expanded into a sequence of short term operations, projects, and budgets. __________________________________________________________
Systematic process of envisioning a desired future, and translating this vision into broadly defined goals or objectives and a sequence of steps to achieve them.
In contrast to long-term planning (which begins with the current status and lays down a path to meet estimated future needs), strategic planning begins with the desired-end and works backward to the current status. At every stage of long-range planning the planner asks, "What must be done here to reach the next (higher) stage?" At every stage of strategic-planning the planner asks, "What must be done at the previous (lower) stage to reach here?" Also, in contrast to tactical planning (which focuses at achieving narrowly defined interim objectives with predetermined means), ...
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Strategic planning means making a plan with a strategy in mind andthen making decisions that will pursue the strategy.
What are the importance of planning in urban planning?
Answer: The six point model was propounded by Francis Jefkins, it argues that public relation planning can be done following the six basic steps below 1. Appreciation of the problem 2.defining the objective 3. defining the public 4. selection of the media and technique 5. budgeting 6.evaluation
Answer: Vertical development of cities , or infill, is preferred by urbanplanners as many of the initial costs of urban building are inplace. The resources contained are shared with many, such ascommunity art and music.
Project planning is one of the most important stages in Project Management because it defines what the project really is based on the requirements gathered (requirements gathering). The project plan will almost certainly change during the course of a project, so it should be constantly updated.
Without Project Planning, the project will most likely fail.
Answer: the importance is to dertermine the future plans of the business,destination and any tourism establishment as well as to conserve the resoureces that are valuable in tourism. Its always important to plan for tourism so that things are inorder and everything will be organized. This will ensure that youcan do everything in order for the tourism to be successful andfruitful.
Answer: Does your culture accept family planning? If so, how do you plan families? Some religions do not accept certain forms of birth control. Some cultures favor certain types of family planning; for example in the United States the most popular form of birth control is the Pill.
Answer: Strategic accounting uses the structure and formality of strategicactivities in order to have a balance of both financial andnon-financial information to promote strategic processes. A highdegree of organization is needed in accounting or critical mistakescan occur in strategic planning can occur.
Answer: i think you are trying to understand the question. it means when you plan houses, mosques, churches or temple structure, and houses and schools etc, how do you plan under the influence of reliogion, and culture and socio economics factors, for example, fundamental muslim will avoid while planning the school for co eduction under the influence of religion. they will build housing in a way where man and women can not be mixed etc. aesthetic means poetry, music film dramas, how are they made under the influence of these three factors for example in dramas muslim will show woman in modesty etc. aesthetic expression mean the expression of emotions and feeling through art
Answer: Aggregate planning in manufacturing is planning so that you allocate the right amount of resources for every process of the manufacturing so that time will be minimized when in IDLE mode.For services, aggregate planning serves to schedule your employees and it varies as to what particular season you are in. Moreover aggregate planning for services (as oppose to manufacturing) implies:1. Most services cannot be inventoried2. Demand for services is difficult to predict3. Capacity is also difficult to predict4. Service capacity must be provided at the appropriate place and time5. Labor is usually the most constraining resource for services