Answer: The United States district courts are the federal trial courts.Their 654 judges handle more than 300,000 cases a year, about 80percent of the federal caseload. The district courts were createdby congress in the judiciary act of 1789.
Answer: In the Federal Court System, the US District Courts ARE the lowest level of court, and have original jurisdiction (over FEDERAL offenses) within their assigned districts (of which, I believe, there are 94).
Answer: It depends on the matter and whether it is a civil matter or a criminal matter.
Added: There are areas where state and federal jurisdiction overlap, however - one of them would have to surrender their jurisdiction to the other. The case can not be heard concurrently, only one system can hear or try the case.
Answer: Primarily the U.S. District Courts, though there are other trial courts as well, including magistrate courts, the bankruptcy courts, the U.S. Court of International Trade, the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, various military courts, and the U.S. Tax Court.
For a detailed summary of the U.S. federal court system, see "Understanding Federal and State Courts" at <http://www.uscourts.gov/EducationalResources/FederalCourtBasics/CourtStructure/UnderstandingFederalAndStateCourts.aspx>
Answer: There are not nine types of cases that Federal Courts have jurisdiction over.
The Federal Courts have the authority to hear cases concerning 1) a Federal Question via 42 USC Section 1331, or 2) where there exists diversity of citizenship between the parties involved via 42 USC Section 1332.
Federal Courts may also exercise supplemental jurisdiction over issues involving state law in 1331 actions as long as the issue arose out of a common transaction or occurrence.
Answer: 1. Federal courts have jurisdiction in cases that involve the U.S. government, the U.S. Constitution, federal laws, or controversies between states or between the United States and foreign governments.
2. Federal courts have jurisdiction in cases that involve citizens of different states, or between U.S. citizens and citizens of another country.
3. Federal courts have jurisdiction in all bankruptcy matters, and in certain legal areas for which special courts have been established.