Answer: Emphysema is a long-term, progressive disease of the lungs that primarily causes shortness of breath due to over-inflation of the alveoli. In people with emphysema, the lung tissue involved in exchange of gases is impaired or destroyed. Emphysema is included in a group of diseases called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD. Emphysema is called an obstructive lung disease because airflow on exhalation is slowed or stopped because over-inflated alveoli do not exchange gases when a person breaths due to little or no movement of gases out of the alveoli. Emphysema changes the anatomy of the lung in several important ways. This is due to in part to the destruction of lung tissue around smaller airways. This tissue normally holds bronchioles open allowing air to leave the lungs on exhalation. When this tissue is damaged, these airways collapse, making it difficult for the lungs to empty and the air becomes trapped in the alveoli.
Answer: Minute ventilation represents the sum ofexhaled tidal volumes over a period of one minute. VE = VT x f; where VE is minute ventilation (the V should have a dot over it), VT is tidal volume, and f is frequency (respiratory rate).
On Google Books check out "Pulmonary Function Testing and Cardiopulmonary Stress Testing," by Vincent C. Madama, page 86, 196, and 300-301: http://books.google.com/books?id=WDSVGYUc7FIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Pulmonary+Function+Testing+and+Cardiopulmonary+Stress+Testing#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Answer: Yes, It uses more energy to use it at high volume then if you were using it on low
If you have a car and a very large open area and maybe a few car batteries time the car on cranked volume for 1st batterie. Next use the next of the batteries and use low volume. (the high volume is going to "die" first)
Answer: Volume in math means the amount of space an object occupies.Volume in music means amplitude, loudness, or sound pressure.Scroll down to related links and look at "How many decibels (dB) is twice (double, half) or three times as loud?".
Answer: yes tidal volume decreases because the patient is not able to inhale and exhale normally. The victims lungs are expanded and it fills the chest before full volume of air can be inhaled. When the victim exhales, he is not able to fully do so because of the higher residual volume in his lungs.
Answer: emphysema is a condition of loss of elasticity of the alveoli where exchange of oxygen and Co2 occurs. The alveoli cannot efficiently exchange oxygen for Co2 so Co2 builds up in the blood. It is usually caused by chronic smoking but can be caused by other diseases/conditions.
Answer: "Decrease in bladder capacity" is definitely correct and probably the answer they are looking for.
I would argue that "decrease in cardiac output" and "decrease in number of nephrons" can also do it by causing edema (fluid retention) when the person is upright which is then excreted at night when the person lies down flat.
Answer: It increases their RV (residual volume) and FRC (functional residual capacity) due to air trapping. It decreases the FEV1 and takes longer to finish their FVC (forced vital capacity) because of decreased flow rates. It also decreases the DLCO (difusion capacity) because of alveolar wall distruction.