Answer: For the immune system to work properly, two things must happen: first, the body must recognize that it has been invaded, either by pathogens or toxins or by some other outside threat. Second, the immune response must be activated quickly, before the invaders destroy many body tissue cells. For the immune system to respond effectively, several conditions must be in place, including the proper interaction of non-specific and specific defenses. The nonspecific defenses on the skin do not identify the antigen (a substance capable of stimulating an immune response or reaction) that is attacking or potentially attacking the body; instead, these defenses simply react to the presence of what it identifies as something foreign. Often, the nonspecific defenses effectively destroy microorganisms, but if these defenses prove ineffective and the microorganisms manage to infect tissues, the specific defenses go into action. The specific defenses function by detecting the antigen in question and mounting a response that targets it for destruction.antibody
Answer: Certain diseases such as AIDS can weaken the bodies immune systemmaking it more susceptible to infections and other conditions.actually once the immune system is destroyed, all kinds of diseaseswill knock your door.
Answer: The skin and mucous membranes play a major role in protecting the body from diseases by keeping out foreign agents. There are also phagocytes, which are cells that "eat" pathogens which are harmful to the body. Another line of defense that our body has are the T lymphocytes, and the B lymphocytes which recognize foreign agents or particles called antigens and responds to them accordingly. The human body will also raise the temperature from 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit which is a perfect environment for bacteria to thrive, to a higher temperature of at least 100 Fahrenheit. This makes it harder for the bacteria to survive, this defense is most commonly known as a fever.
Answer: Yes.Any blood-borne pathogen can be transported through blood or plasma when it leaves the body. This can be in a sterile environment, such as through blood donations and transfusions, or through an un-sterile environment such as cuts, tears or menstrual bleeding.Blood collected through donations undergoes a rigorous testing process (which is why they will often collect a couple of vials of blood along with the pint), to prevent transfusion of diseases to otherwise healthy people. Although, some cases of blood containing pathogens have been reported to have been given to people in need of a blood transfusion. These cases are fairly rare.A more common method of becoming infected with a blood-borne pathogen is through unprotected sexual contact, including oral and anal sex. Tears in the skin that cause even minor bleeding can transport a disease and pass it to a sexual partner.For cases of bleeding outside of the body, nosebleeds and cuts on the body can transport disease as well. It is important to wear nonporous gloves whenever possible when touching someone who is bleeding. Tiny cuts on the hands, that may not be noticeable can pick up a disease from contact with blood.
Answer: Immune system - through a complex interaction between various types of immune cells, the body is able to decompose invading organisms
Immune system memory - information about the pathogens encountered during an illness is stored in immune cells and is used to quickly destroy those pathogens if they become present in the body again (basis for vaccines)
Metabolic adjustments - during severe infections or trauma, the body lowers the consumption of nutrients thus lowering the chances of introducing unwanted microorganisms or toxins into the bloodstream
Blood-Brain barrier - filters out larger molecules - effetively preventing many microorganisms from entering the brain
Sneezing, runny nose, sweat, high fever, vomitting - creates unfavorable microenvironment and expels decomposed (fully or partially) and active pathogens( bacteria, viruses, fungi)
Answer: Ear wax performs the function of providing some protection against water. It also carries bacteria with it out of the ear canal. So by protecting the skin in the canal from water and by carrying away bacteria, ear wax can help prevent infections of the ear canal.