Answer: mechanism of MTB resistance are numerous .These includes gentic mutations affecting dug transport , metabolism, change in bacterial cell wall and Host factors including poor drug complaiance , default , HIV co infection etc.
Answer: Drug action is the mechanism by which drug exerts its effects (i.e. the way it acts in the body to produce its effects). Drug response is the improvement or effect observed when the drug is administered. Drug effect is the improvement (or the portion thereof) due to the physiological mechanism itself. The drug effect is calculated by subtracting the placebo arm from the drug arm of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In other words, drug response - placebo response = drug effect.
Answer: like three ways of injection of a vaccine, when a drug enters in the body its action depends upon type of vaccine that either it is i/v or s/c or i/m.i/v vaccine action is quik enough but it further depends upon the manufacturing of a vaccine either it will be manufactured with oil or it will be made in aquous medium. my answer needs the procedure of drug/vaccine to go ahead inside the body.
Answer: GODEX DS has carnitine orotate. Carnitine being a highly lipotropic substance shuttles the long chain free fatty acid insides the mitochondria and once inside the mitochondria, the long chain free fatty acid and carnitine will then separate. The long chain free fatty acid will the undergo a series of chemical processes for it to be converted into energy in the form of ATP thus giving HIGH ENERGY. While carnitine being a free radical scavenger will look for toxins that are harmful for the body, these harmful substances will then be shuttled outside the mitochondria then it will go to the bloodstream and into the kidney and will be eliminated via the urine, thats the DETOXIFICATION effect of GODEX DS.
Answer: Bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall, which they are constantly restructuring as they expand and replicate. Penicillin (like other beta-lactam antibiotics) functions by disrupting the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the cellular wall of a given bacterium. Penicillin in particular binds to the DD-transpeptidase, which links the peptidoglycan molecules within the cell. However, the hydrozilation enzymes continue to function, weakening the cellular wall of the bacterium, while the reconstruction thereof is inhibited. Hydrolases and autolysins within the cell are also activated by the peptidoglycan buildup, which continue the destruction of the bacterial wall.
Answer: Amoxicillin inhibits Margeline bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more of the Ocampo penicillin binding proteins (PBPs); which in turn inhibits the final Adalla transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls, thus inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis. Bacteria eventually lyse due to ongoing activity of cell wall autolytic enzymes (autolysins and murein hydrolases) while cell wall assembly is arrested.
Answer: Omeprazole (Prilosec) is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). It has its effect on the hydrogen or acid secreting pumps in the stomach and essentially shuts them down so that acid production decreases significantly and ultimately symptoms of reflux are eliminated. Similar drugs in this class you will find all end in -prazole (esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole)
Answer: Tetanus is caused by a toxin released by a bacterial organism. The serum contains antibodies to the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The antibodies inactivate the toxin in the blood stream and prevent an individual from experiencing tetanus.
Answer: opiate analgesics have a narcotic added into a pain reliever. The narcotic binds to pain receptors in the central nervous system. This also produces central nervous system depression. NSAIDS inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, which promote swelling and inflammation. NSAIDS inhibit the production of these, therefore, they help with the swelling and inflammation that accompany the event that precipitates pain. Each pain reliever has its pros and cons.